EnerBase describes a world in which existing policies are tendentially continued and trends recently observed are pursued. The lack of support for GHG emission mitigation affects entire energy systems over a long period, with increasing energy demand and limited fuel diversification. This scenario leads to a temperature rise above 3°C.
EnerBlue is based on the successful achievement of current NDC’s (Nationally Determined Contributions) emission targets for 2030, as well as a continuation of consistent efforts post 2030. Sustained growth in emerging countries is a powerful driver of global energy demand, but policies play a key role in controlling the pace of growth. This scenario leads to a global temperature rise between 2°C and 2.5°C.
EnerGreen explores the implications of more stringent climate policies, with countries fulfilling or overachieving their NDC commitments and then regularly revising their emissions goals. These changes lead to significant improvements in energy efficiency and a strong deployment of renewables. In this cleaner trajectory, global temperature increase is limited to below 2 °C.
The battery storage capacity in the US more than tripled to reach 4.6 GW in 2021 (from 1.4 GW in 2020) and increasingly broadened out of ancillary services, according to the American Energy Information Administration (EIA). The amount of battery storage capacity grew 220%, driven by the commissioning of 106 utility-scale systems with 3.2 GW of capacity. About 78% of all storage capacity added 2021 was built in regional transmission organization (RTO) service territories.
South Korea’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions rebounded by 3.5% to 679 MtCO2eq in 2021, after a 6.2% drop in 2020, according to the country’s Ministry of Environment. It represents a 6.5% decline compared to 2018 level. This increase was mostly driven by industry-related GHG emissions, which rose by 5.2% in 2021, followed by the energy sector (+3.6%), waste disposal (+1.6%) and agriculture (+0.9%). In 2021, the energy sector accounted for 86.9% of South Korea’s total GHG emissions, followed by industry (7.5%), agriculture (3.1%) and waste disposal (2.5%). The country’s GHG emissions had been rising by an average of 1.1%/year between 2010 and 2018 and peaked at 727 MtCO2eq in 2018, before experiencing a decrease of 3.6% in 2019. South Korea aims to cut its GHG emissions in 2030 by 40% compared to 2018 levels and to reach carbon neutrality by 2050.
Australia's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions rose nearly 1% in 2021, as driving and travel increased and as manufacturing activity recovered from the Covid-19 pandemic. The Australian Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources estimates that Australia’s total GHG emissions in the year to December 2021 reached 488 MtCO2eq, showing an increase of 4.1 MtCO2eq (0.8%) compared to the previous year. These results reflect an ongoing reduction in emissions from electricity, as well as an increase in emissions from transport, stationary energy (excluding electricity), agriculture and fugitive emissions.
France’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions except LULUCF rose by 6.4% to 418 MtCO2eq in 2021, after a 9.6% drop in 2020, according to preliminary figures from Citepa, representing a 23% decline compared to 1990 levels. This 2021 increase is driven by higher GHG emissions in the transport sector (+11.5%, i.e. +13 MtCO2eq, including +12% for road transport), in manufacturing and construction (+7.2%, i.e. +5.2 MtCO2eq, including +21% for ferrous metallurgy), in the energy sector (+7.4%, i.e. +3 MtCO2eq, including +10% for power generation) and in agriculture (+5.5%, i.e. +3.9 MtCO2eq).